Ethernet Cables and Its Types

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Ethernet is known to be an important component of the various technologies of computer networking which are mostly used in local area networks or LANs apart from MANs or metropolitan area network and WANs. Ethernet was primarily introduced in 1980 but was standardized to IEEE802 in 1983. This has enabled to link longer distances. In the present times, it has been known to replace the technologies of LAN namely token ring/FDDI/ARCNET.

Whenever two systems or computers send data together, a collision is sure to occur. In such cases, the data that has been sent out ultimately becomes unusable. Besides, the two systems will put a halt to sending data usually for a short span of time before the whole process gets started once again. For resolving such issues, a protocol known as CSMA/CD is used.

Ethernet Cables and Its Types

Ethernet cables generally look similar to the telephone cables. The cables get connected to boxes which are known as hubs or switches. But every cable is connected from the NIC (network interface card) of a computer to a box. The various names through which an Ethernet cable is known are 10BaseT 100Baset, 1000 Base T cable.

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Various Types of Ethernet Cables

  1. 10Base2 and 10Base5

These are the coaxial cables which are similar to the ones that are used in televisions. But the Ethernet cables of this type appear to be thinner. The cables are also familiar to many in the names of thinnet or coax. The computers that have the cable attached to it consist of a T plugged into them as the cables get plugged in from the two sides. Many times the vampire tap supports a transfer speed of 10MB/sec and runs through the cable skin.

  1. 10BaseT

These cables are also similar to the cables used in televisions. It consists of 8 copper wires and the cables are connected from a system to a switch or a hub. These cables are also known to provide a speed of 10mb/s. they are known to transmit electrical signals.

  1. 10BaseF

Although similar to the 10BaseT cables, these cables do have a major difference of transmitting light pulses instead of electrical signals.

  1. 100BaseT

Even the 100BaseT Ethernet cable looks similar to the ones of 10BaseT. The major difference lies in the speed between the two. The 100BaseT Ethernet cables averagely support a speed of 100mbps which is not in the case of 10BaseT cables.

  1. 1000BaseT

The 1000BaseT cables also have quite similar looks to the 10BaseT cables. But the only difference here is also the speed. These cables can support a speed of 1000mbps.

In the present times, the use of 10BaseT, 100BaseT, and 1000BaseT cables are similar as they get used in a category 5 or 5e of unshielded and twisted pair. The shielded cable often gets used in places where immense electrical noise can be witnessed. Whereas, category 6 provides better results while working with the faster signals like 10gb/s. today Ethernet is being used widely for commercial purposes.

How to Change your Wi-Fi Password

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If you doubt that someone has cracked your Wi-Fi password and now freely using your bandwidth, or you simply want to change your wireless network password due to security reasons related to your network and personal data, just follow these fundamental instructions in order to  change or  reset your Wi-Fi router’s password.

1 Find out the admin interface for your Wi-Fi router and connect to it using your browser. The majority of Wi-Fi routers available out there can be directly controlled by web browsers. You could provide the password that you may have saved, if you don’t remember it, you should to reset the router in order to reset the password to its default password setting. You can do this by pressing down the reset button for a few seconds. If you are not sure which button to press on your router, go to your wireless router maker’s website for more details.

Most router makers include a default IP sub net set at the factory. This default sub net helps in finding your router’s IP address, which helps you in connecting to it and entering its administration interface. Check in your Wi-Fi router’s handbook for the exact address.

Other than default router address, you are supposed to enter the port that this interface is working on; In order to do so, just put a “:” on the ending part of the IP address and after that enter your admin port number,  if your router producer needs it.
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2. Next step is to log-in to the administrative console of your Wi-Fi router. In case, the default administrator name and password has been changed, go to your router maker’s site and find it out. You can also find it on Google by searching default admin Password for your specific Wi-Fi router.

Wi-Fi Password

3. In wireless security configuration component, Make sure that the latest wireless security configuration is set on your router.

You can change your Wi-Fi encryption without much effort; simply change it to powerful WPA2 encryption if it is set on WEP (as it can be hacked without difficulty).

It is to be noted that WPA2 is considered the most powerful and secure encryption at present.

It is advised that you change your wireless network name (SSID) as well while resetting your Wi-Fi router password. You should keep in mind that cracking tables for the thousand most widely used SSIDs have already been computed by the hackers. So you should not set it to the default one. Go for a non-dictionary word as dictionary words can be easily found out. So use your creativeness and create a new word!

4. Make a powerful password for the wireless network password. Once you are done with an SSID setting, you are supposed to create a new wireless network password.

It will be a good idea to choose more complicated and arbitrary password so Wi-Fi hackers can’t crack it easily. Don’t forget to disable the “allow admin via wireless” setting, by disabling this setting you can make sure that only those connected to your Wi-Fi  router through an Ethernet cable get access to control your router. If you don’t do so, anyone can connect to your Wi-Fi router as an administrator using wireless network.
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The Concept of SSL and How it Works

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SSL Certificates help to provide a secure access to a web server. SSL Stands for Secure Socket Layer. These days there are several financial transactions happening online. There are high chances that these information can be easily hacked or used unethically by other people. To avoid this problem, SSL certificates are primarily used. These certificates help in bank transactions, safe logins and various other activities related to the internet. These certificates help online businesses to ensure the safety of their customer details and build a trust relationship with their customers. These certificates come into picture when the browser tries to connect to any specific web site using a secure server.

Why SSL? It is the role of every organisation to install these SSL certificates. This will help them to help their customers to have safe and secure sessions. When the visitors try to login to a particular web site’s web server and tries to transact, an encrypted message would be sent in the form of keys which will help to complete the transaction successfully with the maximum safety measures.


  • The secure connection also helps the web visitors to browse the web content safely without leaking any further information. In most cases the symbol of the secure server or the certificate details are displayed in the address bar which indicates the visitor on the safety of the browse

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The details of the SSL certificates can also be viewed by the traffic who visit the website. It is advisable for customers to view once before making any financial transactions to ensure the safety of their transaction. The SSL certificates are a detailed certificate which has the data like the site owner’s address, mail id and his physical address. The root certificate is also loaded into the website settings.  There are several companies available in the market which provides these SSL Certificates. The owner of a website can connect with one of the vendors and get the same. The encryption levels vary with different service providers. Few websites may require very high encryption levels while few may require less.


Renewal: These SSL Certificates have to be renewed periodically.  SSL certificates make it impossible for any other viewer to look for a person’s information. It provides the maximum level of security and protection to the client’s data. The website is registered to a particular person and only the relevant details are displayed to the owner. The main objective of these certificates is to provide a trust worthy relationship between the visitors and the owner of the website. These certificates come for a cost and are digital in nature. These certificates are digitally signed by a trusted authority.

How to Make Your Wireless Router Invisible to Others

As we all know that wireless networks are not that secure and well-protected if you compare them with wired networks. However many times we overrate the possible security threats from wireless networks, but it is still a better option to use much safer wired networks if users are very much concerned about the security issues.

Many people hide their wireless network in order to ensure the wireless security. When you hide a wireless network properly, you can keep it invisible from those who don’t know the SSID of your network. Although, many people claim that this method of hiding wireless router is not completely flawless, but this method is certainly very straightforward and effortless in terms of implementation.

What is Service Set Identifier (SSID)

The SSID is the short form for the term Service Set Identifier; it is basically a name that your router uses to recognize it among other wireless networks. Every user with a connection to wireless network uses this SSID function. This feature of a wireless router allows you to identify several other signals present in the airwave. When a person goes to some restaurant with an open Wi-Fi network, he/she can easily find out the correct network to hook up to as it is labelled with that restaurant’s name.

Although SSIDs are put out willingly, all the routers broadcast it by default, but there is an option to turn it off. So basically when you turn off the setting for broadcasting your SSID, no one will be able to see the presence of your Wi-Fi network.

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The restrictions of making your SSID invisible to others

Theoretically, the hiding of SSID wireless signals is not possible completely. Whether you choose to hide SSID from others or not, the Wi-Fi router will still broadcast radio waves, in other words, your router can still be used. Of course, there will not be an SSID attached to it, which is why some people use different methods to detach wireless networks.

If you hide your Wi-Fi network by hiding your SSID, it can still be accessed by somebody using a wireless network scanner.

How to hide your SSID

The technique of hiding your SSID is fairly simple and effortless. You should log-on to your Wi-Fi router first. You can log-on easily if you input the IP address of your wireless router into the internet browser; this address is usually most of the time. A login page will open asking for your user name and password. Most of the people might have modified it already, in case if you have not done so; you can use your Wi-Fi router’s guide for the necessary steps to do it.

When you log in, you can directly go to the wireless settings page. On this page, you will see an SSID broadcast preference (which is a checkbox mostly), you can just uncheck this box. Now, you can save your settings on this page and you are all done! The main thing to keep in mind is that you need to know the SSID of your wireless network, so you can use this information when you have to connect without a Wi-Fi sniffer.

As we have mentioned earlier that just hiding a SSID of Wi-Fi network is not enough, especially when you are concerned about the security of your network, however many people are still interested in making their SSID invisible as it gives them a sense of security. Nevertheless, this is one of the most fundamental, but useful technique for protecting a wireless network.

How to Add a New Domain Name to Your Existing Hosting Account

It doesn’t take much effort to manage more than one domain from one hosting account. However the process is straightforward and simple but you need to accurately make some configurations in your DNS settings in order to add multiple domains.

Basically, it’s a kind of virtual hosting  that lets a user manage several domains using only one hosting account. It is to be noted that all the add-on domains use the resources of a hosting account with primary domain.

Adding multiple domains to a single account is a great way of saving some money. You don’t need to buy a hosting account for every domain you create. All you need to do is simply make new domains and share your resources of active hosting account among all the domains.

These additional domains attached to the single hosting account possess distinctive domain names and they are stored inside a sub-directory of a user’s home directory. In essence, people visiting your add-on domain are directed to this directory. You can also indicate the name and exact location of this directory while making the add-on domain.

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How to attach several domains with a single hosting account:

In order to make an add-on domain, the cPanel’s Add-on Domains functionality can be utilized, this feature is present in the Domains segment of cPanel interface.

add domain to hosting

You will be required to give the add-on domain’s domain name in the New Domain Name section.

Make sure that the FTP username is correct in the next section. You also need to ensure the root of document is in the proper location.

Next you will be asked to key-in and verify the password that you would like to associate with this new domain in the proper sections. It is to be mentioned here that this password is for MySQL and FTP accounts of your domain.

Press the Add tab.

domain name to hosting

Re-check the DNS settings

You are now required to verify that the IP of your domain has been setup perfectly. You can utilize the advanced DNS Zone Editor of cPanel to verify and modify DNS data.

domain name add

As shown in the picture, you can verify that the information is accurate. In case if you see that the information is incorrect, just change the Address value of this record by pressing the Edit tab.

As soon as this record gets correctly configured, the DNS information starts propagating. It is to be noted here is that it might take a very long time to finish, so you need to be patient and wait for it to complete. After completion, your add-on domain will become openly reachable.

Steps to Setup Your Wifi Router

Have you purchased a new Router and finding tough to install the setup wizard? Are you looking up for wifi Router setup complete guide? Some of the guidelines given below will help you solve your problem. Almost all routers come with a user manual in the box. Though the setup instruction varies from one brand to another and the device differences can also create problem in the setting up process.

There are different setup processes and you can follow what is convenient to you. Setting up of a Router is easy if you follow the following instruction carefully. First you need to have a PC with a wireless adapter and a high speed internet connection to get access of the site of service provider. When you connect to the network and start the set up process, you can follow the given steps carefully.


To start your Wifi Router Setup, follow these two phases:

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  1. The Cabling phase- Using the Setup Software
  • Disconnect the wifi router from the port, the PC and any power source completely. If there is no power button, remove the wire completely.
  • Insert the Disc which comes with the router in your PC or you can download the latest version from the service provider’s website; make sure that your internet is high-speed.
  • Check the on-screen instruction watchfully and connect your PC with Ethernet cable.

Generate a wireless network and secure with a password so no one can misuse your network. It is always suggested, so that no one can interfere into your connection.

Your Wifi Router Setup is now ready to use without any cable. However, if you are still having the trouble, follow the next setup method.

  1. The configuration phase- Manual Setup 


  • Get the Router connected to the modem using Ethernet cable.
  • Connect your Router to a power source. Wait for sometimes to check the signal. When the signal blinks then follow the nest phase.
  • Connect the Router to the PC using the Ethernet connection or any WLAN available.
  • Log into the Router’s website opening the browser and when prompted enter the IP address. The IP address is generally found in the documentation or at the back of your Router.
  • Enter the default name and password provided in the documentation to start manual setup. You can change the network name and set a new password later once the router starts functioning and your internet access without wire or any modem.
  • Disconnect your PC from the Wifi Router after you finish the setup and reconnect to the internet wirelessly.

Once you complete the Wifi Router Setup process, you can share the network with people you provide password and permission and can be set that all family members could access the internet.

Secure your Computer Networks with Bandwidth Monitoring Tools

The bandwidth is the range of frequencies measured in hertz and popular web hosting term. In computer networks, bandwidth is used as a synonym for data transfer rate that is the amount of data which can be carried from one point to another in a given time period. The bandwidth monitoring tool is used to check the network frequencies and to monitor the internet speed. Often we face problems like slow network or websites not responding properly.  There can be many reasons for all these. The bandwidth monitoring tools help us to pinpoint the actual problems by resolving them. It is also used to alert the administrator whether there are network load issues or breached bandwidth threshold.

The IT Professionals are well aware of the value of complete network management. But many of us are not well aware of the potential benefits of bandwidth monitoring within a network. The computer and networks infrastructures play important role in making a business a success, as most of the businesses are relied on these resources.

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The Importance of Bandwidth monitoring tools are as follows

  • Bandwidth is a key factor in the networking businesses and an important aspect in Internet Business.
  • Bandwidth monitor will help you in curbing the unnecessary amount of charges by assessing the right amount of network that you generally use making your ISP bills more predictable.
  • It helps you to allow your customers to monitor their own bandwidth usage graphs.
  • Bandwidth tools allow you to control flooding issues checking the internet traffic by thorough monitoring of any site of your server and network performances.
  • The bandwidth monitor helps you to secure your network from network attackers. It provides vital information detecting anomalies in the network behavior possibly caused by a network attacker.
  • If you are an administrator, the bandwidth tools allow you to share the bandwidth evenly among your employees across the company to avert major traffic crisis in the network.

Various types of Bandwidth monitoring tools:

  • ISP: Internet Service Provider is something which allows you to check internet speed as well as offer real-time traffic monitoring displaying the percentage used from your total quota and help you adjust before the limit.
  • Networx: Networx is a powerful free bandwidth monitor which lets you track how fast is your internet connection and how much internet traffic you consumed. In addition, it helps you detect any suspicious network activities. It is highly customized and supports multi languages
  • NetGuard: Net Guard is free monitoring tools which keep your computer killing malware that waste your bandwidth. It displays the uploading and downloading real-time speed.
  • tbbMeter: tbbMeter is a bandwidth monitor showing how much you are sending and receiving from the internet and shows the variation in the network flow.
  • FreeMeter: It is a very simple and easy-to-use portable network monitoring and diagnosis tool which shows graphically the amount of data being transferred.

Elmo™ projector

An Elmo™ projector is basically a document camera with projection, frequently used descriptive term for all such type of systems, regardless of who developed them. However it is not a proper use of this term, that’s why several manufacturers fear about losing the value of their brand. If the company is not known, the term document camera or document projector should be used in most cases.

The key function of this type of projector is to show documents and other objects that are not made with transparencies. It includes a digital video camera and a projection lens to work appropriately. More than just documents, projectors can also be employed to display 3D objects in many cases, however they will appear in 2D on screen.

The basic idea of the Elmo™ projector is identical to that of the overhead projector, which came into existence in late 50s and was in use through 90s. These types of projectors were used to make content available to large number of viewers in a classroom or meeting room, but the limitation was that, it could display documents on transparent material only. 3D objects would appear as a black shadow.

With a document projector, not just documents and objects, but moving pictures, like movies can also be displayed. This is not at all effective way of displaying such media. The camera of a document projector doesn’t work with big number of frames/second as opposed to standard video cameras. That is why these projectors are usually referred as document cameras, because motion is not significant while displaying documents. Similarly, when looking at 3D objects with document cameras, they should not move, or move slowly.

Document cameras are real-time image capture devices which are used to display an object to wide range of audience. Similar to an opaque projector, a document camera is capable to enlarge and project the images of real, 3D objects. They are, basically, high resolution web cams. They allow a teacher, lecturer or presenter to write on a sheet of paper or to display a 2D or 3D object. All objects can be displayed by a document camera in theory. Generally objects are just positioned under the camera. The camera takes the picture which consecutively produces a live picture with the help of a projector. Various document camera visualizers give very good flexibility for the placement of objects. Larger objects can just be positioned facing the camera and the camera rotates if required, a ceiling mounted document is used for a larger working area.

Usual applications for a document camera consist of:

  • Lecture room or classroom use
  •  Presentations  in official meetings, teaching and conferences
  • Videoconferencing
  •  Presentation of proofs and facts in the court
  • Several medical applications ( tele-pathology , tele-medicine and  x-rays display)

Formerly epidiascopes and overhead projectors were used for this purpose. Using zoom feature, a document camera can expand the small print in books and project a printed page as a usual transparency. The room lighting should be dark for a document camera. Most document cameras are capable of sending video signals to a computer using a USB cable.  Document cameras can also be connected to an interactive whiteboard in place of a standard screen. Few document cameras come with an accessory so it can be used with a microscope.

Prototype document camera

Historically, Document cameras were designed to meet a greater requirement to project and present original documents, plans, drawings and objects directly. WolfVision and Elmo introduced first document cameras and were introduced at the Photokina Trade Fair in 1988.

The use of computers, projectors, and popular presentation programs like Microsoft PowerPoint in meeting rooms, became popular with time. However Document cameras keep on offering a suitable and easy way of displaying documents, books or slides in presentations as needed.

The first projectors and prototypes were mainly simple video cameras. In mid 70s these cameras were assembled and given additional lighting to make sure that they can operate in dim light conditions, and also to offer a reliable quality of projected figures. Document cameras are also regularly get benefits from expansion in other sectors. Towards the end of the 1990s progressive scan cameras came into existence. Today several visualizers are capable of minimum 30 frames per second output, which gives high quality images.


Combination of various different technologies gave birth to the latest design and specification of modern document cameras. The quality of the recorded image depends on the primary components like optics, camera and lighting system. The production of different mechanical designs by individual manufacturers then produces the final product. Today HD Document cameras are available with HDMI output, Audio/Video recording and playback, and some document cameras are also taking advantage of WIFI technology to get rid of the requirement of cables.

Document cameras include a variety of refined automated systems that are developed to make your experience easy and simple. For example, when a new object is displayed, permanent autofocus detection adjusts the focus settings automatically, without any user intervention. They include various other important capabilities like automatic exposure, white balance.

A document camera requires an image display device to display the information to the viewers. Modern motherboards include a range of connections to make sure the flexibility of use. Besides, HDMI, DVI or VGA ports for connecting to displays, there are various other interfaces offered to aid connection to a computer or interactive whiteboard. Moreover, an external PC or laptop can be linked with the document camera to facilitate effortless change between a Power Point presentation and a live demonstration. Some projector devices also control external storage devices and are capable to run files instantly from a USB drive, or they can also save pictures that are taken during the presentation on it.

These document cameras provide regular firmware upgrading which allows its users to have the chance to get benefitted from latest available features.

Document camera types

Document cameras have been divided into 3 groups. Smaller lightweight models, larger sturdier and more stable units or desktop models, and the third group are ceiling mounted visualizers.

Portable and desktop models offer the same environment as an overhead projector. The added flexibility like, the variety of objects that can be displayed to an audience are appreciable. Portable devices can be installed in several locations without any prior special installation.

Ceiling mounted visualizer cameras are quite different from desktop models; larger objects can be displayed using them. The system is installed in the ceiling, so technical tools to limit the views of presenter and audience are not there. Ceiling models are mostly used for video conferencing  to create a much better experience for all the members.

Document cameras use in education

Nowadays, document cameras are being used widely in many educational institutes. It gives students an enhanced view of the information that lecturer is presenting to the class. Moreover a document camera can also be an amazing classroom management tool. The teacher can use this device as a timer as the students work alone or in groups. A picture schedule to help English Language Learners understand directions can also be put in place. Document cameras can also be connected with projectors, computers, scanners and other devices.

Removable User Identity Module (R-UIM)

Removable User Identity Module (aka R-UIM) cards are basically designed for CDMAone/CDMA2000 devices that extend the GSM SIM card to CDMA networks and cell-phones. An older version of the CSIM application is present in R-UIM cards to fit in CDMA networks. The R-UIM card has SIM (GSM) application as well, that’s why it works on both networks. It is an extension of the GSM 11.11 standard so it can work with existing GSM mobiles.

Using a removable identity card, CDMA users can simply change their handsets and still hold their phone numbers by just changing the cards. This makes many difficult situations very easy for example phone up-gradation, replacements of handsets due to smash-up, or use of the same device on another CDMA network.

This type of cards are mainly used in China , it is active in various other countries like India, Indonesia, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and the US as well.

It is an easily detachable module (RUIM or R-UIM) card which is used as an identification chip for mobiles that run on CDMA networks. A RUIM card is capable of storing user’s private data, for example user’s name and account number, address book, messages, phone number and few other settings. Users can easily swap these cards between well-matched phones, thus the user’s personal data and settings can be transferred easily. In many cases, a RUIM card is also compatible with phones designed to work on the GSM network.


To activate a CDMA cell phone that supports an RUIM card, just the card should be activated. Once it is activated, you can use it in whichever compatible phone you like by just detaching the card and placing it in to another handset. This new handset can be used on the user’s account for the purpose of making or receiving phone-calls.

Using your own RUIM card, you can exchange various compatible phones. If you switch to another phone service provider but still want to keep the old one, you can place a new card from the service provider into your existing phone. However, your existing phone should be unlocked as well as it should support the frequency band of the network.

It is to be noted that if you want the RUIM card to be supported in a new phone, then the handset should be unlocked or from the same service provider. In several countries, generally a handset is locked to a specific carrier, so only RUIM cards from same carrier can only be placed in those cell-phones. This constraint is removed in an unlocked phone, so that means a card from any service provider can be utilized in an unlocked device.


The RUIM cards were primarily developed to reproduce several advantages of a SIM card on the GSM network. mobiles on the CDMA network without RUIM cards save all the information in the mobile itself; You will have to go to the cell phone service provider, to get the information transferred to the new mobile in case you decide to change your phone. GSM network phones has SIM cards, to store all the personal information, so it is really simple and easy to activate a new phone, you just need to switch the card from one device to another.

CDMA handsets that use RUIM cards are capable of swapping data between phones. The RUIM card is more or less identical to regular SIM card, in terms of size and shape. They normally include SIM software; therefore they can work with GSM handsets as well. The GSM handset should be first unlocked in order to work with a RUIM card. However, a RUIM card with a GSM device doesn’t work in every region, as different locations utilize different frequencies for cell phones.


Security is a main cause of problem for those who use RUIM cards as they have   got user’s personal data. However RUIM cards mainly require a personal identification number (aka PIN) in order to use the card. When a mobile phone with the RUIM card is switched on, you will be required to enter this unique number in order to use any features on the device except emergency calls. If someone enters the incorrect identification number several times consecutively, the device will be blocked and it will not allow trying the PIN again.


The CDMA network has huge number of users mainly in Asia and North America, although few service providers don’t have mobile with RUIM cards. China and other Asian countries have more users than in the United States.

R-UIM cards are almost the same size as postal stamps, and contain user data and data settings on an easily detachable smart card. The data stored on the R-UIM can be easily deleted and inserted again in another handset; it makes the task of transferring the personal information to the new device easier by eliminating the need of coding. The R-UIM is capable of storing GSM provisioning and CDMA provisioning on a single card both, thus it’s a dual-mode solution. CDMA subscribers can simply have all of their subscription information available in a GSM network by just putting the dual-mode R-UIM card into a GSM handset. If you use it with a GSM phone, the R-UIM works like a GSM 11.11 SIM.


The advantage of the RUIM card is quite clear, user’s personal information is stored in a tiny and handy device, which means users can easily move it to a another handset  without any trouble or delay. This is particularly helpful if you decide to purchase a new mobile handset or get a handset temporarily from someone. With the popularity of CSIM on UICC technologies, the R-UIM has become outdated. This technique allows SIM, CSIM, and USIM  to exist on a single smartcard simultaneously, so virtually, the card can be used in any phone internationally that is compatible to smart cards.

RUIM and SIM provide enhanced flexibility and ease; they also offer various helpful services like roaming contracts. They certainly give benefits to users whereas the CDMA technology doesn’t allow transferring contacts and personal information into a new handset.

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Phones

Definition:  A Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) phone is a type of mobile phone which has Internet connectivity feature. A WAP phone can be used for various purposes such as checking email, sending messages, tracking stocks, accessing news and sports headlines as well as downloading music. However WAP phones generally are not capable of presenting the same Internet experience visually as a desktop or laptop computer, but they sure can offer you mobile Internet access and on the move productivity experience.

WAP is an international Internet standard particularly designed for mobiles, phones along with personal digital assistants (PDAs) and other handsets. Technology giants like Nokia, Sony Ericsson, the Unwired Planet and Motorola designed the standard primarily. The main challenge was to provide the Internet a mechanism that included several inherent constraints, by necessary design.

A cell phone’s display screen is very limited; in some handsets it’s as small as 150 x 150 pixels. Most content on internet is developed to display on displays with a minimal resolution of 640 x 480 pixels. A mobile phone relies on scrolling keys without a keyboard or mouse; and usually mobile devices have a transfer rate of just 14.4 kbps. Whereas Dial-up is as fast as 56 kbps, (DSL) or cable speeds are even faster.

WAP takes care of these issues by offering mobile-specific language scripts and protocols. Graphics that take really long time for loading are eliminated virtually. The text-based content is plainly arranged to provide simple navigation using scrolling keys. Therefore, a Web page usually appears quite differently on a WAP device as compared to desktop. Mobile Internet mainly uses the smallest data footprint to compensate for slower data transfer speeds.

A WAP phone has its own benefits like its pocketable size and light weight design. It gives you exceptionally easy and simple online access from almost anywhere. You can access nearly everything, for example weather updates, nearby hotel, find a phone number, book tickets, purchase things and game score update. The device also offers you an awesome way to entertain yourself as you wait for some service or meeting.

Wireless Application Protocol (aka WAP) is a technological paradigm which is mainly designed to access information through mobile wireless network.

Before WAP came into existence, mobile service providers had very narrow prospects to provide interactive data services, such as Email via cell phone, stock-market price tracking, sports and news updates, songs downloads.

Nowadays, the WAP has vanished in mainly Europe and US. The latest internet browsers in handsets support full HTML, therefore don’t require the use of WAP mark-up.

Technical specifications



The WAP standard defined a protocol suite that provides the inter-operability of WAP devices, and software with various network technologies, like GSM or CDMA.

WAP protocol suite includes:

  • Wireless Application Environment (WAE)
  • Wireless Session Protocol (WSP)
  • Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP)
  • Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS)
  • Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP)
  • Any Wireless Data Network

The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is the default standard across the globe for appearance and delivery of wireless data and services over cell phones and other wireless devices. A global wireless protocol specification, which is based on internet standards like XML and IP has been made available for all networks.

WAP is capable of working with most wireless networks like CDMA, CDPD GSM, PHS, PDC, TDMA, Mobitex and several others. Initially, many mobile companies like Ericsson, Nokia and others started to develop standards separately, but later it was understood that it would be a better idea to develop a common standard. The WAP forum then came into existence to set up a universal standard for Internet on mobile handsets, without customizing the web pages for the particular display on various mobile devices.

The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) introduces the concept of the Internet as a wireless service platform. It takes care of the constraints of a wireless setting, and becomes accustomed to existing Internet technology to fulfil these limitations; the WAP Forum has successfully designed a standard that fits across huge variety of wireless devices and networks. The WAP specification does not state about the way data should transmit on the air interface. The WAP specification mainly sit on top of the existing bearer channel standards, therefore any bearer standard can fit with the WAP protocols to employ full product solutions. It provides a protocol stack that works on high latency and low bandwidth networks like GSM Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD) or Short Message Service (SMS). Other than being independent of air interface, the WAP doesn’t depend on any specific device as well. It specifies the minimum functionality a device should possess, and also holds any functionality on top of that minimum functionality.

WAP is in its development phase persistently and almost all the top sites on internet are making their content accessible through mobile browsing. The cost for accessing the net using a WAP handset usually differs as per the selected mobile phone package and carrier. If you use your cell phone for internet access regularly, then you should go for the most excellent carrier first when buying a new phone, as most contract plans include them. If you are a user who is looking to upgrade an existing plan, then select a device which is well-suited with your carrier.